Lightweight building components have created many challenges for today’s firefighters. As the use of lightweight components continues in the construction industry, firefighters are confronted with a rapidly changing operational environment. Lightweight wood building components such as lightweight wood trusses, engineering wood I-beams, and oriented strand board staircases and exterior sheathing are but a few of the lightweight wood materials that are now in common use in both residential and light commercial construction. Lightweight wood components have been proven in laboratory testing and real-world fire ground experience to fail much more quickly than legacy full dimension sawn lumber building components when directly exposed to fire. This presentation offers a refresher review of the advantages and disadvantages of traditional wood building components and how they affect fire spread in wood frame structures. The presentation also presents the history and fire performance record of lightweight wood building components. The presentation offers several case histories that have resulted in deaths and severe injuries to firefighters while operating in lightweight wood frame buildings. Lightweight wood frame structures will be in your local for years to come. Are you and your fire personnel prepared for the strategic and operational challenges that fighting fires in structures built using lightweight wood building components present?